Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
Proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993
The General Assembly ,
Recognizing the urgent need for the universal application to women of the rights and principles with
regard to equality, security, liberty, integrity and dignity of all human beings,
Noting that those rights and principles are enshrined in international instruments, including the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,
Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,
Recognizing that effective implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women would contribute to the elimination of violence against women and that
the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, set forth in the present resolution, will
strengthen and complement that process,
Concerned that violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of equality, development
and peace, as recognized in the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, in
which a set of measures to combat violence against women was recommended, and to the full
implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,
Affirming that violence against women constitutes a violation of the rights and fundamental freedoms
of women and impairs or nullifies their enjoyment of those rights and freedoms, and concerned about
the long-standing failure to protect and promote those rights and freedoms in the case of violence
against women,
Recognizing that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations
between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by
men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one
of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with
men,
Concerned that some groups of women, such as women belonging to minority groups, indigenous
women, refugee women, migrant women, women living in rural or remote communities, destitute
women, women in institutions or in detention, female children, women with disabilities, elderly women
and women in situations of armed conflict, are especially vulnerable to violence,
Recalling the conclusion in paragraph 23 of the annex to Economic and Social Council resolution
1990/15 of 24 May 1990 that the recognition that violence against women in the family and society
was pervasive and cut across lines of income, class and culture had to be matched by urgent and
effective steps to eliminate its incidence,
Recalling also Economic and Social Council resolution 1991/18 of 30 May 1991, in which the Council
recommended the development of a framework for an international instrument that would address
explicitly the issue of violence against women,
Welcoming the role that women's movements are playing in drawing increasing attention to the
nature, severity and magnitude of the problem of violence against women,
Alarmed that opportunities for women to achieve legal, social, political and economic equality in
society are limited, inter alia , by continuing and endemic violence,
Convinced that in the light of the above there is a need for a clear and comprehensive definition of
violence against women, a clear statement of the rights to be applied to ensure the elimination of

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